The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.
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Tree plantation & horticulture in the light of science & Quran

We are witnessing these days a vast tree plantation campaign, which is launched every year from late February and continues until the end of the month of March. During this period of time, millions of saplings are planted by the people and relevant institutions of the Islamic Emirate in different parts of the country.
In the opening ceremony of this campaign, the Islamic Emirate (IEA) officials by pointing to the harmful impacts of the wars of the past four decades on the country’s environment, encouraged the people to plant saplings and protect them so that in this way they can reduce these harmful impacts on the environment caused by chemical substances used by foreign invaders.
Therefore, the past history and the spiritual and financial value of tree plantation and horticulture have been explained in this article.
The history of horticulture goes back to 3000 BC in Egypt, where Egyptians used to plant trees such as grapes, dates, and olives.
To produce these products, they went for plantation pruning, irrigation, and field preparation. Later, the Romans and Rome turned to this profession.
Varo Marcus T, a Roman writer, in his book ‘Roman Farm Management’ has recalled of grapes, pears, apples, figs and nuts.
Meanwhile, Elder Plane also wrote about the breeding of some fruits 77 years BC in his book titled ‘Natural History’.
For example, in his book, he mentioned four types of apricots, six types of peaches, nine types of cherries, nine types of plums, 29 types of figs and 41 types of pears. Also, 500 years back from today, the Romans were familiar with grafting, crop rotation and using of animal manure.
Subsequently, at the end of the 5th century, with the expansion of Islam and the scientific progress, the agriculture and horticulture became very popular and important to Muslims as most of the Islamic countries as Iraq, today’s Syria and India turned to producing various horticultural products.
At the beginning of the 14th century, considerable progress was made in horticulture in Italy and France.
Later on, the cell has been discovered by Robert Hooke. The practical classification of plants by Carline and successive studies by Gregor Mendel are considered to be the most important innovations and discoveries of this period during the 16th century.
Finally, during the 20th century, with the progress in various fields of science, especially the production and cultivation of modified seeds, fertilizers, chemical spices and agricultural machinery, many changes took place in agriculture and horticulture as the developments in this field in the last 100 years (especially the last academic year) has been estimated to be more than 100 centuries estimated before.
In the light of Quran, tree plantation and horticulture are considered as important. In the Holy Quran, the word “tree” is mentioned under various titles in most cases, and we mention a few of its words as examples:
In Quran’s Surah “Naml”, after referring to the creation of the heavens and the earth and falling the rain from the sky, the gardening and plantation have been mentioned and it makes human aware of this important point that they should think of the quality of creating life in trees:
[More precisely], is He [not best] who created the heavens and the earth and sent down for you rain from the sky, causing to grow thereby gardens of joyful beauty which you could not [otherwise] have grown the trees thereof? Is there a deity with Allah? [No], but they are a people who ascribe equals [to Him].
The Holy Quran also mentions trees and plants as the “resources” of human life, and sometimes it considers them as “livelihood”, that is, the means of fulfilling human needs, and gives them a special dignity as the Almighty Allah says in Surah ‘Abasa’:
Let the human reflect on the food he eats, how We pour down rain in abundance, and split the earth, splitting, how we made the grain to grow, grapes, and fresh fodder, and the olive, and the palm, the densely treed gardens, and fruit and pastures, for you and for your herds to delight in.
To be Continued
Abo Elyas Jahadwal

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The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.