The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.

Procedure for selection of Amir in Islam:

Model of political system in Islam:
Part V

There are particular procedures and mechanisms for the selection of head of state or Amir in Islam and they are as follows:
1. Council for Resolution and Resettlement: An Islamic council is authorized to select the head of the state or Amir as Abo Bakr Sediq, the first Caliph of Islam, had been selected through the council for resolution and resettlement.
2. Transference: the then caliph consults with a number of members of the council for resolution and resettlement to suggest somebody for his replacement as Abo Bakr Sediq, the first Caliph of Islam, consulted with Usman, Abdul Rahman bin Auf, Saeed bin Zaid, Asad bin Hadhir and other members of the council for resolution and resettlement and finally selected Hazrat Omar as the second Caliph of Islam.
3. Council: The third procedure or mechanism through which an Amir or head of state is selected in Islam is the council. The then Amir or caliph forms a council for resolution and resettlement and authorizes the council to select his replacement soon after he dies as Hazrat Omar had formed a six-member council for resolution and resettlement. The council finally selected Hazrat Usman bin Afan as the third Caliph of Islam.
4. Seize and Conquer: If somebody takes the power by force after the death of the caliph or Amir. Such caliphate is called as a contracted; therefore, obeying this caliphate is compulsory if the caliph has all the conditions for being a caliph.
Election and its problems:
1. In elections, a person who gets the highest votes is announced as the winner, but if there are more candidates, then it also happens that someone who gets 15 percent of the votes in the election is also declared as the winner, and the other 85 percent of the votes are therefore invalid as they’re cast to various candidates, and nobody gets 15 percent. In such a case, the minority wins and represents the majority. To resolve such problems, various countries have made use of various procedures which are as follows:
2. France goes for the second ballot, meaning that if anybody gets 50 plus 1 vote is declared as the winner of the election. If nobody gets 50+1 vote, the elections will go for the second round and the second elections is held in a week. Those getting more votes can participate in the second round of the elections.
3. Proportionate Representation: This is divided into other categories, and they are as follows:
1. In this procedure, the election leaflets are published and there will be no names on them, but there are names and signs of groups or parties and people are asked to put a sign in front of the group they like, then the results are announced after the elections. Any group getting the highest percentage of votes in the whole country are declared as the winner of the election. The winner group or party can then make the government as they have got lots of seats in parliament.
2. In some countries, a group presents the names of its candidate members to compete for membership of the parliament. In such a procedure, certain priorities are taken into account, such as: a group presents a list of fifty people. If the same group gets fifty percent of the votes, this number of people will become members of the parliament, but if their votes are less, then the first names on the list will be announced as members of the parliament. This procedure can be followed when the election is based on a group or party basis.
The procedures that have been identified for addressing problems in a government that has been formed based on votes of the minorities are complicated and have not solved the problems; therefore, the more complicated these procedures are, the more problems, corruption and expenditure we witness. Saifullah Saee


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The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.