The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.
Articles

Background of proxy wars: What does Afghanistan need in current crisis?

Part I

When the nation-state was established in 1648 after the Westphalia agreement, the world experienced the Industrial Revolution, the concept of nationalism became widespread, and each king would defend his nation’s interest and protect his territory. With the emergence of nationalism, identities in other countries, including Germany, England, France, and Afghanistan, came into existence. Nationalism had negative and positive aspects; the positive aspect was that it would grant superiority and pride to the nation of a country and create unity among them so that they could defend their interest and territorial integrity against the invasion of others. The negative aspect of nationalism was that it granted a sense of superiority to some nations over others, which led them to invade other nations and countries. WW I and WW II are prominent examples of such adverse aspects of nationalism that led to the killing of millions of people. After WW I, Europeans convened and established the League of Nations in 1920. At that time, 41 countries, which constituted 70% of the world’s population, attended the creation of such an organization. Later, the number of countries attending the organization increased to 60. The primary goal of establishing the League of Nations was that Europeans should not come to direct war anymore and prevent war in their colonies located in other areas of the world. Indeed, the Western countries divided the world for themselves on which they could rule and have dominance. The agreement was not an international one since America and its other colonies were not part of the agreement. Therefore, the League of Nations could not prevent World War II, and the war occurred between the Axis powers and Allied powers. WW II was one of the bloodiest wars in the world because new weapons and armaments were created at that time, and two atomic bombs were dropped on the Nagasaki and Hiroshima areas of Japan. With the end of World War II, the United Nations was established in 1945 in California. The agreement on establishing the UN was based on the League of Nations, where the five top winners of World War II were given the mandate and authority to veto rights. After the establishment of the UN, the bipolar world came into existence. The top five countries make significant decisions in the framework of the United Nations, and the rights of other countries in the organization lack significance. The P-5 countries have redistributed global interests and their spheres of influence among themselves. Countries and peoples are naturally always eager to expand their areas of influence and economy. Given their greed, they indeed interfere in each other’s control and influence spheres. These interventions did not cease with the establishment of Eastern and Western blocs. Since the 1980s, with the globalization or internationalization of globalization, science and technology have rapidly grown, and the world of the internet has been created. With globalization, the world of information or the information age, has emerged, and many countries around the world have experienced further development. Unfortunately, Afghanistan indulged in proxy wars during this crucial phase of global development, and it remained the least developed country in Asia. Afghans also missed out on opportunities for growth and development during this period and, like in the past, failed to capitalize on other opportunities. In the information age, new economic and military powers emerged, referred to as emerging powers. In 2009, an emerging power known as BRICS established another economic organization to counter U.S. interests and enhance economic relations among themselves to create a significant economic bloc against the United States. BRICS consisted of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. In 2024, Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, and Utopia also joined BRICS, and it is said that this economic union will expand more than ever before. These new economic and military powers are striving to form new alliances against America. Europe also attempted to challenge U.S. power with the establishment of the European Union and the introduction of the euro. However, in Europe, the UK did not join this union and maintained its currency, the pound. Now, the focus is on India, China, and the Far East, where economic competition between the U.S. and China has begun. Javed

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The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.