The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.
Articles

Afghanistan; the graveyard of empires

Afghanistan, due to its geographical location, has been always involved in wars imposed by the invaders during the period of past history. It has happened many times that the invaders have been defeated before they reached their final goal in the country. There have been lots of examples in the country’s history. For example, in the modern era when the British have first come as traders to India, they have found Indians flexible and subordinate; therefore, they have started to invade India instead of going for any trade or businesses with them. The British did not satisfy with invasion the India; therefore, they planned to invade Afghanistan. In 1838, Macnaghten met with the fugitive Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh in Lahore to make a plan to help Shah Shuja retake the power. They agreed and the first Anglo-Afghan war happened as the British entered Afghanistan from Baluchistan and Bolan. With this, the Afghans reacted and held an urgent meeting in Ghazi Abdullah Khan Achakzi’s home, where the participants made plan to attack on the invading British forces. Based on the plan, Afghan mujahidin attacked on Bala-e-Hisar in Kabul and killed Burnes and many others During the uprising of Afghans in Kabul, Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan also arrived in Kabul and led the war against the British forces, who were later forced for talks. The British ambassador Macnaghten wanted to kill Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan in retaliation of murdering Burnes, but fortunately Wazir Akbar Khan quickly responded and killed him. With this, the British forces, the number of whom reached to 16,000, started to withdraw from Afghanistan. On the way to Jalalabad, all the British troops were killed by Afghans, except William Brydon, who was a British doctor. The first Anglo-Afghan war finished with the defeat of the British empire in Afghanistan. After almost 36 years, the British once again entered from India to Afghanistan. The British actually ordered a diplomatic mission led by Sir Louis Cavagnari to set out for Kabul, where they hoped to establish a political resident. This was a cost-effective way for British to control the foreign relations of ‘buffer’ states. When the mission was turned back at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, the British decided to attack Afghanistan. Cavagnari, the British envoy, was killed in Kabul as Ghazi Mohammad Jankhan appeared as the leader of Afghan mujahidin. Others were as Mawlavi Abdul Ghafoor Langari, Mullah Mushk Alam and Ghulam Haidar Khan Logari. The British left Afghanistan in the hands of Abdur Rahman. In 1919, Afghanistan got its independence and with this, the hand and interference of the British empire was cut. For almost 60 years, there was peace in Afghanistan, but in 1979, the Soviet Union in aiming to reach the Indian sea attacked on Afghanistan and invaded the country against all international norms. But, the Soviet Union failed to reach the Indian sea. The red army were defeated after almost 10 years and forced to withdraw from Afghanistan. In 2001, the United States attacked on Afghanistan and invaded the country. After 20 years of serious fighting against the US-led NATO forces, the US and NATO member countries were defeated and forced to withdraw their troops from Afghanistan. In later Jan 2022, US President Joe Biden told Congress that Afghanistan was a graveyard for foreign empires, stressing that nobody could control this country; therefore, we have been defeated there and brought our troops home. Seddiq Logarwal

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The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.